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I just wanted to say “Happy Birthday” to my husband today and I LOVE YOU.  He is my rock and my foundation.  He is the reason I am able to do the things I love, like go to school and get my degree, stay at home and work, make my jewelry, etc.  Today is his day and he rocks.

Here is a little information on the year “1968”

“The year 1968 is considered one of the most turbulent, and pivotal, twelve month periods in American history. This single year was a flashpoint for many of the social, political, and cultural transformations for which the overall decade of the 1960s is known. During these years, the United States became entrenched in an unpopular war in Vietnam abroad, while unrest, experimentation, violence, and outspokenness raged throughout the nation. The Civil Rights Movement gained momentum, sit-ins and riots became commonplace, leaders were assassinated on a seemingly regular basis, and social experimentation and psychedelic music became the rage in San Francisco and elsewhere.” (The History Channel, 1996-2007, A&E Television Networks)

“Many consider these years divisive, others shameful, yet some believe they were necessary to galvanize change in America. The slowly building upheaval of the 1960s reached an apex in 1968. The tension that had been increasingly brewing over the previous years finally came to a head, exploding across 365 days of violence, uprising, and mourning. Robert Kennedy and Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. were assassinated, riots broke out at the Democratic National Convention, and the media coverage of the Tet Offensive exposed the gruesome underbelly of the Vietnam War. Together, these events signaled the powerful cultural, economic, and social changes that still reverberate today.” (The History Channel, 1996-2007, A&E Television Networks)

Significant Vocabulary Terms for 1968:

Amnesty, Audacious, Concertina Wire, Momentum, Phalanx, Prevalant, Self-Indulgent, Triage, and Upheaval.

Civil Rights Movement

“Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., the preeminent leader of the American Civil Right Movement in the 1960s, first came into the national spotlight in 1955 during the Montgomery Bus Boycott. King, then a 26-year-old minister at a local Baptist church, was selected to spearhead a boycott by blacks of Montgomery, Alabama’s public transportation system after Rosa Parks, an African-American seamstress, was arrested and fined on December 1, 1955, for refusing to give up her seat on a public bus to a white man. The boycott lasted 381 days and ended when the U.S. Supreme Court upheld a ruling by a lower court outlawing racial segregation on public buses in Montgomery.” (The History Channel, 1996-2007, A&E Television Networks)

“In 1957, Dr. King moved to Atlanta, where he became the first president of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), an organization that advocated nonviolence and civil disobedience as a means for ending racial discrimination against African Americans. In February 1960, four black college students put Dr. King’s message of civil disobedience into practice when they staged a sit-in at a “whites only” lunch counter in Greensboro, North Carolina. Sit-ins, many of them organized by the newly formed Student Nonviolence Coordinating Committee (SNCC), soon spread to other locations throughout the South and eventually led to the desegregation of a number of stores, libraries, theaters and other public facilities. During the first half of the 1960s, other forms of civil disobedience, including Freedom Rides, demonstrations and marches-including the August 1963 March on Washington at which over 200,000 people heard Dr. King deliver his “I Have a Dream” speech-helped raise awareness and gain national sympathy for the Civil Rights Movement.” (The History Channel, 1996-2007, A&E Television Networks)

“In July 1964, President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act of 1964, a sweeping piece of legislation that outlawed discrimination based on race, color, religion or national origin and empowered the federal government to enforce desegregation. In 1965, the Voting Rights Act outlawed literacy tests, poll taxes and other tactics that had made it difficult for many blacks to vote. Despite these victories, by the mid-1960s, there was growing disagreement among civil-rights leaders over the most effective strategies for achieving their objectives. Dr. King continued to advocate non-violence and civil disobedience, while some younger black activists, frustrated by the pace of progress, favored more militant tactics. Stokely Carmichael, who in 1966 became chairman of the SNCC, gave speeches about “Black Power” and the belief that African Americans should become self-reliant rather than simply seeking to integrate into the white mainstream. Radical organizations such as the Black Panthers, founded in 1966 by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale, espoused violence as the only means by which blacks could gain equality. In 1967, while hippies in San Francisco celebrated the “Summer of Love,” major race riots broke out in such cities as Newark and Detroit, spurred on by incidents of police brutality against blacks, along with frustration over high rates of poverty and unemployment in African-American communities.” (The History Channel, 1996-2007, A&E Television Networks)

“1968 was an especially violent and tumultuous year for the Civil Rights Movement. On April 4, 1968, Martin Luther King, Jr., was shot while standing on the balcony of the Lorraine Motel in Memphis, Tennessee. At the time of his death, King was in Memphis to support the city’s striking sanitation workers. An escaped white convict named James Earl Ray was later sentenced to 99 years in prison for King’s murder. The news of the famed civil-rights leader’s passing sparked rioting or incidents of violence in over 100 cities across the United States.” (The History Channel, 1996-2007, A&E Television Networks)

“Civil rights leaders remained divided after King’s death, with no single individual stepping in to unite the movement’s many factions, as the charismatic Dr. King had once done. By the late 1960s and early 1970s, civil rights leaders began running for public office as a way to increase their political power. Additionally, they advocated for Affirmative Action programs which aided minorities in such areas as education and employment.” (The History Channel, 1996-2007, A&E Television Networks)

Hippies and the Revolution of a Culture

Hello I Love You by the Cure was one of the popular songs for this year.  “”Tune In, Turn On, and Drop Out” was the motto of the hippie movement, a significant countercultural phenomenon in the 1960s and early 1970s that grew partially out of young America’s growing disillusionment with U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War. Hippies were mainly white teenagers and young adults who shared a hatred and distrust towards traditional middle-class values and authority. They rejected political and social orthodoxies but embraced aspects of Eastern religions, particularly Buddhism. Many hippies also saw hallucinogenic drugs, such as marijuana and LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide), as the key to escaping the ties of society and expanding their individual consciousness.” (The History Channel, 1996-2007, A&E Television Networks)

“The immediate precursor to the hippies was the so-called Beat Generation of the late 1950s, including the poet Allen Ginsberg, who became a hippie hero. But where the coolly intellectual, black-clad beats tended to keep a low profile and stay out of politics, the hippies were known as much for their political outspokenness as for their long hair and colorful psychedelic clothing. Their opposition to the Vietnam War became one of the most significant aspects of the growing antiwar movement throughout the latter half of the 1960s.” (The History Channel, 1996-2007, A&E Television Networks)

“To express their protests, and to “turn on” others, the hippies used art, street theater and particularly music. Folk music and psychedelic rock-the Beatles album Sergeant Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band was a prime example-were both crucial aspects of hippie culture. This culture reached its peak in the summer of 1967, when a concert in San Francisco’s Golden Gate Park kicked off the start of the so-called “Summer of Love.” The event introduced the music and aesthetic of the hippies to a wider audience and inspired thousands of young people around the country to head to San Francisco, some wearing flowers in their hair, a reference to Scott McKenzie’s version of the John Phillips song “San Francisco,” a ubiquitous hit and a kind of hippie theme song. In 1969, more than 500,000 people attended the Woodstock Music and Art Festival in Bethel, New York, an event that for many epitomized the best aspects of the hippie movement.” (The History Channel, 1996-2007, A&E Television Networks)

“There was a dark side to hippie culture, however, and it went beyond the panicked disapproval expressed by conservatives about the “immorality” of the hippie way of life. A Time magazine article in 1967 quoted San Francisco’s public health director as saying that the city was paying $35,000 per month for treatment for drug abuse for the city’s 10,000 hippies. To Joan Didion, who wrote about her time in San Francisco for her acclaimed 1968 essay “Slouching Towards Bethlehem,” the hippies were “missing children” who were the most conclusive proof that “the center was not holding” in American society. To the hippies, their behavior was the one truly authentic reaction to the oppressive forces of consumerism, imperialism and militarism embodied by America in the 1960s.” (The History Channel, 1996-2007, A&E Television Networks)

“By the mid-1970s, the hippie movement was on the wane, though many aspects of its culture-particularly music and fashion-had worked their way into mainstream society. The fraught atmosphere of the 1960s that had created the hippie counterculture no longer existed, particularly after the Vietnam War ended, and with the advent of punk and disco music the earnest hippies were often seen as ridiculous. Still, their ideals of peace, love and community became the enduring legacy of the hippie movement, and even today there are a few “neo-hippies” to be found on college campuses and communes across the country and around the world.” (The History Channel, 1996-2007, A&E Television Networks)

Music and Hippies

“The American music scene during the first part of the 1960s was dominated by male vocalists such as Elvis Presley, Motown artists like Diana Ross & The Supremes and folk performers such as Bob Dylan with their acoustic-based protest songs. By the mid-1960s, though, psychedelic rock had taken root as an intrinsic part of the growing hippie movement. The Flower Power generation was interested in freedom and self-expression and the kind of mind-altering experiences that could be achieved through the use of psychedelic drugs such as marijuana and LSD. Psychedelic rock, which often used electronic sound effects and was sometimes influenced by music from India, attempted to recreate and enhance the feelings resulting from hallucinogenic drug use. Groups including Jefferson Airplane, The Grateful Dead and Janis Joplin and Big Brother & the Holding Company were pioneers of psychedelic rock. They all lived in San Francisco’s Haight-Ashbury neighborhood, which became the epicenter of the hippie scene.” (The History Channel, 1996-2007, A&E Television Networks)

“The Beatles were at the height of their popularity throughout the 1960s. After bursting onto the scene in their native England in 1962, the band made its first appearance on American television in 1964, on The Ed Sullivan Show, and generated a massive audience. By the second half of the decade, the band’s pop rock sound had become more experimental and psychedelic. In June 1967, the Beatles released their eighth album, Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Heart Club Band, considered one of the most important records in rock history. Many of the album’s hit songs, such as “With a Little Help From My Friends” and “Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds” were allegedly filled with drug references.” (The History Channel, 1996-2007, A&E Television Networks)

“One non-musician who was an important part of the ’60s music scene was concert promoter Bill Graham, whose San Francisco auditorium, The Fillmore, became a major venue for psychedelic rock groups such as Jefferson Airplane, Quicksilver Messenger Service, The Grateful Dead and Big Brother & the Holding Company, among others. In 1968, Graham opened the Fillmore East, which became a showcase for counterculture musicians in New York City.” (The History Channel, 1996-2007, A&E Television Networks)

“In June 1967, the Monterey International Pop Music Festival, the first widely promoted rock fest, took place in California. Over 200,000 people attended the event, considered a highlight of San Francisco’s “Summer of Love.” Jimi Hendrix and The Who made their first big U.S. performances at the festival, which also showcased performers such as Janis Joplin, Otis Redding and Ravi Shankar. John Phillips of the Mamas & the Papas, who helped organize the festival, wrote a song, intended as a fest advertisement, called “San Francisco (Be Sure to Wear Flowers in Your Hair).” Sung by Scott McKenzie, “San Francisco” became a Flower Power anthem.” (The History Channel, 1996-2007, A&E Television Networks)

“Monterey was a precursor to the Woodstock Festival, which took place in August 1969 on a 600-acre farm in Bethel, New York. An estimated half a million young people turned up for the event, which featured the key musicians of the time, including Hendrix, Joplin, Jefferson Airplane, The Who, Joan Baez, Sly and the Family Stone and Crosby, and Stills Nash & Young, among others. Woodstock later came to be viewed as one of the ultimate events of the hippie era.” (The History Channel, 1996-2007, A&E Television Networks)

History of the Vietnam Region

“In 208 B.C., the former Chinese general Trieu Da made himself emperor of Nam Viet, located in the Red River Valley in what is now southern China and northern Vietnam. The small kingdom was conquered in the next century by China and absorbed into its growing empire as the province of Giao Chi. After an uprising in 40 A.D., Vietnam was reconquered by the Chinese. Rebellion continued sporadically throughout the next 1,000 years, until in 939 A.D. Vietnamese forces under Ngo Quyen were able to defeat the Chinese and establish an independent Vietnam.” (The History Channel, 1996-2007, A&E Television Networks)

“By extending its dominion all the way south through the Mekong Delta, Vietnam became a leading power in Southeast Asia by 1400. China attempted to conquer the country again in the 15th century, but was decisively defeated in 1428 by rebel forces. Civil strife plagued Vietnam in the 16th century as two aristocratic clans, the Trinh and the Nguyen, fought for influence. The Trinh won control of the northern part of Vietnam, while the Nguyen retained a fiefdom in the south, dividing the country in half. Around the same time, European powers-particularly the French-began missionary activity in Southeast Asia, gradually increasing their influence.” (The History Channel, 1996-2007, A&E Television Networks)

“In 1787-just two years before their historic revolution-the French helped Nguyen Anh regain control of Vietnam. As Emperor Gia Long, he unified the country but refused to grant France the missionary and trading privileges they desired. When Emperor Napoleon III took power in France, he began putting increased pressure on the Vietnamese, including naval strikes. French forces captured Saigon in 1861, and Vietnam was forced to cede several provinces in the Mekong Delta (later known as Cochinchina) to France. By 1887, France had extended its control over much of Vietnam.” (The History Channel, 1996-2007, A&E Television Networks)

“Although French rule brought improvements in infrastructure and economic growth, the quality of life of the majority of the Vietnamese population did not improve, and resistance to colonial rule increased. In 1930, the Vietnamese revolutionary leader Ho Chi Minh, then living in Hong Kong, formed the Indochinese Communist Party. When World War II broke out in 1939, the Japanese military occupied Vietnam, leaving the French colonial administration intact but effectively reducing its influence. Ho Chi Minh returned to his native country the following year and founded the Viet Minh, or League for the Independence of Vietnam, to fight both Japan and France.” (The History Channel, 1996-2007, A&E Television Networks)

“With the Allied victory in 1945, Japan withdrew, leaving the French-educated Emperor Bao Dai in control of an independent Vietnam. Viet Minh forces rose up immediately, seizing the northern city of Hanoi and declaring a Democratic State of Vietnam (known commonly as North Vietnam) with Ho as president. Seeking to regain control in the region, France backed Bao and set up the state of Vietnam (South Vietnam) in July 1949, with Saigon as its capital. Armed conflict between the two states continued until a decisive battle at Dien Bien Phu ended in French defeat by Viet Minh forces. The subsequent treaty negotiations at Geneva partitioned Indochina and called for elections for reunification in 1956.” (The History Channel, 1996-2007, A&E Television Networks)

“Backed by the United States, the strongly anti-Communist South Vietnamese government of Ngo Dinh Diem refused to support the Geneva accords. As the truce between North and South Vietnam began to crumble over the next few years, Communist guerrillas known as the Viet Cong began launching attacks on targets (including U.S. military installations) in South Vietnam. The United States continued to increase its support of South Vietnam, sending economic aid and–beginning in December 1961-military troops. After Diem was overthrown in a brutal coup, the Vietnam War escalated, as the United States began regular intensive bombing of North Vietnam and dispatched combat troops in large numbers to maintain control in the south.” (The History Channel, 1996-2007, A&E Television Networks)

“The Vietnam War affected an immense majority of the country’s population; in eight years of warfare, an estimated two million Vietnamese died, while three million were wounded and another 12 million became refugees. The war ended in 1975, when Communists seized control of Saigon, renaming it Ho Chi Minh City (Ho himself died in 1969). Vietnam was unified the following year, though sporadic violence continued over the next 15 years, including conflicts with neighboring China and Cambodia. War had ravaged the country’s infrastructure and economy, and reconstruction proceeded slowly. Under a broad free market policy put in place in 1986, the economy began to improve, boosted by oil export revenues and an influx of foreign capital. Trade and diplomatic relations between Vietnam and the United States were resumed in the 1990s. The current prime minister of Vietnam is Nguyen Tan Dung, who is regarded by many as the country’s most progressive leader since Ho Chi Minh.” (The History Channel, 1996-2007, A&E Television Networks)

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